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IRS.gov Website
Rev. date: 2/17/2017


Additional Tax on Early Distributions from Traditional and Roth IRAs

Tax Topic 557
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To discourage the use of IRAs distributions for purposes other than retirement, you'll be assessed an additional 10% tax on early distributions from traditional and Roth IRAs, unless an exception applies. Generally, early distributions are those you receive from an IRA before reaching age 59½. The additional 10% tax applies to the part of the distribution that you have to include in gross income. It's in addition to any regular income tax on that amount.


No Additional 10% Tax

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Distributions that you roll over or transfer to another IRA or qualified retirement plan aren't subject to this additional 10% tax. This is true as long as you follow the one IRA-to-IRA rollover per year rule. For more information on rollovers, refer to Tax Topic 413, Rollovers from Retirement Plans, and visit Do I Need to Report the Transfer or Rollover of an IRA or Retirement Plan on My Tax Return?
Exceptions to the additional 10% tax apply for early distributions that are:
Refer to Publication 590-B, Distributions from Individual Retirement Arrangements (IRAs), for more information on these exceptions and on IRA distributions generally.
Other exceptions apply to distributions from other qualified employee retirement plans. For information on these exceptions, refer to Tax Topic 558 or Publication 575, Pension and Annuity Income.


Reporting the Additional 10% Tax

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The additional 10% tax is reported on Form 5329, Additional Taxes on Qualified Plans (Including IRAs) and Other Tax-Favored Accounts. However, you don't have to file Form 5329 if your Form 1099-R, Distributions From Pensions, Annuities, Retirement or Profit-Sharing Plans, IRAs, Insurance Contracts, etc., shows distribution code 1 in Box 7. In this instance, you need only enter the additional 10% tax directly on the appropriate line of your Form 1040, U.S. Individual Income Tax Return. If you qualify for one of the exceptions to the additional 10% tax, but your Form 1099-R doesn't have a distribution code 2, 3, or 4 in the box labeled "distribution code(s)," or if the code shown is incorrect, you must file Form 5329 to claim the exception.


Tax Withholding and Estimated Tax

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Federal income tax withholding is required for distributions from IRAs unless you elect out of withholding on the distribution. If you elect out of withholding, you may have to make estimated tax payments. For more information on withholding and estimated tax payments, refer to Publication 505, Tax Withholding and Estimated Tax.