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Publication 551


A ratable deduction for the cost of certain intangible property over the period specified by law. Examples of costs that can be amortized are goodwill, agreement not to compete, and research and mining exploration costs.
Business assets:
Property used in the conduct of a trade or business, such as business machinery and office furniture.
Adding costs, such as improvements, to the basis of assets.
Yearly deduction allowed to recover your investment in minerals in place or standing timber. To take the deduction, you must have the right to income from the extraction and sale of the minerals or the cutting of the timber.
Ratable deduction allowed over a number of years to recover your basis in property that is used more than one year for business or income producing purposes.
Fair market value (FMV):
FMV is the price at which property would change hands between a buyer and a seller, neither having to buy or sell, and both having reasonable knowledge of all necessary facts.
Going concern value:
Going concern value is the additional value that attaches to property because the property is an integral part of an ongoing business activity. It includes value based on the ability of a business to continue to function and generate income even though there is a change in ownership.
Goodwill is the value of a trade or business based on expected continued customer patronage due to its name, reputation, or any other factor.
Intangible property:
Property that cannot be perceived by the senses such as goodwill, patents, copyrights, etc.
Like-kind property:
Items of property with the same nature or character. The grade or quality of the properties does not matter. Examples are two vacant plots of land.
Personal property:
Property, such as machinery, equipment, or furniture, that is not real property.
Real property:
Land and generally anything erected on, growing on, or attached to land, for example, a building.
Amount of depreciation or section 179 deduction that must be reported as ordinary income when property is sold at a gain.
Section 179 deduction:
This is a special deduction allowed against the cost of certain property purchased for use in the active conduct of a trade or business.
Section 197 intangibles:
Certain intangibles held in connection with the conduct of a trade or business or an activity entered into for profit, including goodwill, going concern value, patents, copyrights, formulas, franchises, trademarks, and trade names.
Tangible property:
This is property that can be seen or touched, such as furniture and buildings.
Unstated interest:
The part of the sales price treated as interest when an installment contract provides for little or no interest.