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Publication 519

Income Entitled to Tax Treaty Benefits(p42)

If a tax treaty between the United States and your country provides an exemption from, or a reduced rate of, tax for certain items of income, you should notify the payor of the income (the withholding agent) of your foreign status to claim a tax treaty withholding exemption. Generally, you do this by filing either Form W-8BEN or Form 8233 with the withholding agent.
File Form W-8BEN for income that is not personal services income. File Form 8233 for personal services income as discussed next.

Employees and independent contractors.(p42)

If you perform personal services as an employee or as an independent contractor and you can claim an exemption from withholding on that personal service income because of a tax treaty, give Form 8233 to each withholding agent from whom amounts will be received.
Even if you submit Form 8233, the withholding agent may have to withhold tax from your income. This is because the factors on which the treaty exemption is based may not be determinable until after the close of the tax year. In this case, you must file Form 1040NR (or Form 1040NR-EZ if you qualify) to recover any overwithheld tax and to provide the IRS with proof that you are entitled to the treaty exemption.
Students, teachers, and researchers.(p42)
Students, teachers, and researchers must attach the appropriate statement shown in Appendix A (for students) or Appendix B (for teachers and researchers) at the end of this publication to the Form 8233 and give it to the withholding agent. For treaties not listed in the appendices, attach a statement in a format similar to those for other treaties.
If you received a scholarship or fellowship and personal services income from the same withholding agent, use Form 8233 to claim an exemption from withholding based on a tax treaty for both types of income.

Special events and promotions.(p42)

Withholding at the full 30% rate is required for payments made to a nonresident alien or foreign corporation for gate receipts (or television or other receipts) from rock music festivals, boxing promotions, and other entertainment or sporting events, unless the withholding agent has been specifically advised otherwise by letter from the IRS. Form 13930 is used to request a reduction in withholding. Withholding may be required even if the income may be exempt from taxation by provisions of a tax treaty. One reason for this is that the partial or complete exemption is usually based on factors that cannot be determined until after the close of the tax year.
You will be required to pay U.S. tax, at the time of your departure from the United States, on any income for which you incorrectly claimed a treaty exemption. For more details on treaty provisions that apply to compensation, see Pub. 901.