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Publication 51

3. Wages and Other Compensation(p9)

Cash wages that you pay to employees for farmwork are generally subject to social security tax and Medicare tax. You may also be required to withhold, deposit, and report Additional Medicare Tax. See section 4 for more information. If the wages are subject to social security and Medicare taxes, they are also subject to federal income tax withholding. You may also be liable for FUTA tax, which isn't withheld by you or paid by the employee. FUTA tax is discussed in section 10. Cash wages include checks, money orders, etc. Don't count as cash wages the value of food, lodging, and other noncash items.
For more information on what payments are considered taxable wages, see Pub. 15.

Commodity wages.(p9)

Commodity wages aren't cash and aren't subject to social security and Medicare taxes or federal income tax withholding. However, noncash payments, including commodity wages, are treated as cash wages if the substance of the transaction is a cash payment. These noncash payments are subject to social security and Medicare taxes and federal income tax withholding.

Other compensation.(p10)

Pubs. 15-A and 15-B discuss other forms of compensation that may be taxable.

Family members.(p10)

Generally, the wages that you pay to family members who are your employees are subject to social security and Medicare taxes, federal income tax withholding, and FUTA tax. However, certain exemptions may apply for your child, spouse, or parent. See the table, How Do Employment Taxes Apply to Farmwork, in
section 12.

Household employees.(p10)

The wages of an employee who performs household services, such as a maid, babysitter, gardener, or cook, in your home aren't subject to social security and Medicare taxes if you pay that employee cash wages of less than $2,000 in 2016.
Social security and Medicare taxes don't apply to cash wages for housework in your private home if it was done by your spouse or your child under age 21. Nor do the taxes apply to housework done by your parent unless:
For more information, see Pub. 926.
Wages for household work may not be a deductible farm expense. See Pub. 225.

Share farmers.(p10)

You don't have to withhold or pay social security and Medicare taxes on amounts paid to share farmers under share-farming arrangements.

Compensation paid to H-2A visa holders.(p10)

Report compensation of $600 or more paid to foreign agricultural workers who entered the country on H-2A visas in box 1 of Form W-2 but don't report it as social security wages (box 3) or Medicare wages (box 5) on Form W-2 because compensation paid to H-2A workers for agricultural labor performed in connection with this visa isn't subject to social security and Medicare taxes. On Form W-2, don't check box 13 (Statutory employee), as H-2A workers aren't statutory employees.
An employer isn't required to withhold federal income tax from compensation it pays an H-2A worker for agricultural labor performed in connection with this visa but may withhold if the worker asks for withholding and the employer agrees. In that case, the worker must give the employer a completed Form W-4. Federal income tax withheld should be reported in box 2 of Form W-2.
These reporting rules apply when the H-2A worker provides his or her TIN to the employer. If the H-2A worker doesn't provide a TIN and the total annual wages to the H-2A worker are at least $600, the employer is required to backup withhold. See the Instructions for Form 1099-MISC and the Instructions for Form 945.