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Publication 535

When To
Deduct Interest(p14)

If the uniform capitalization rules, discussed under Capitalization of Interest, earlier, do not apply to you, deduct interest as follows.

Cash method.(p14)

Under the cash method, you can generally deduct only the interest you actually paid during the tax year. You cannot deduct a promissory note you gave as payment because it is a promise to pay and not an actual payment.
Prepaid interest.(p14)
You generally cannot deduct any interest paid before the year it is due. Interest paid in advance can be deducted only in the tax year in which it is due.
Discounted loan.(p14)
If interest or a discount is subtracted from your loan proceeds, it is not a payment of interest and you cannot deduct it when you get the loan. For more information, see Original issue discount (OID) under Interest You Can Deduct, earlier.
Refunds of interest.(p14)
If you pay interest and then receive a refund in the same tax year of any part of the interest, reduce your interest deduction by the refund. If you receive the refund in a later tax year, include the refund in your income to the extent the deduction for the interest reduced your tax.

Accrual method.(p14)

Under an accrual method, you can deduct only interest that has accrued during the tax year.
Prepaid interest.(p14)
See Prepaid interest, earlier.
Discounted loan.(p14)
See Discounted loan, earlier.
Tax deficiency.(p14)
If you contest a federal income tax deficiency, interest does not accrue until the tax year the final determination of liability is made. If you do not contest the deficiency, then the interest accrues in the year the tax was asserted and agreed to by you.
However, if you contest but pay the proposed tax deficiency and interest, and you do not designate the payment as a cash bond, then the interest is deductible in the year paid.
Related person.(p14)
If you use an accrual method, you cannot deduct interest owed to a related person who uses the cash method until payment is made and the interest is includible in the gross income of that person. The relationship is determined as of the end of the tax year for which the interest would otherwise be deductible. See section 267 of the Internal Revenue Code for more information.