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Publication 570

Double Taxation(p23)

Mutual agreement procedures exist to settle issues where there is inconsistent tax treatment between the IRS and the taxing authorities of the following possessions.
These issues usually involve allocations of income, deductions, credits, or allowances between related persons; determinations of residency; and determinations of the source of income and related expenses.

Competent Authority Assistance(p24)

The tax coordination agreements between the United States and the possession tax departments contain provisions allowing the competent authorities of the United States and the relevant possession to resolve, by mutual agreement, inconsistent tax treatment by the two jurisdictions.

How to make your request.(p24)

Your request for competent authority assistance must include all the information listed in Revenue Procedure 2006-23, 2006-20 I.R.B. 900 available at
Tax Tip
Also, see Notice 2013-78, which provides proposed updates to the procedures for requesting U.S. competent authority assistance under tax treaties. As noted, an update to Revenue Procedure 2006-23 will be published in the future.
Your request must be in the form of a letter addressed to the Deputy Commissioner (International) LB&I. It must contain a statement that competent authority assistance is requested under the mutual agreement procedure with the possession. You (or a person having authority to sign your federal return) must sign and date the request.
Due date
Send your written request for U.S. assistance under this procedure to:

Deputy Commissioner (International)
Large Business and International Division
Internal Revenue Service
1111 Constitution Avenue, N.W.
Routing: M4-365
Washington, DC 20224
(Attention: TAIT)

Nonresident aliens generally must present their initial request for assistance to the relevant possession tax agency.

Credit or Refund(p24)

In addition to the tax assistance request, if you seek a credit or refund of any overpayment of U.S. tax paid on the income in question, you should file a claim on Form 1040X, Amended U.S. Individual Income Tax Return. Indicate on the form that a request for assistance under the mutual agreement procedure with the possession has been filed. Attach a copy of the request to the form.
Also, you should take whatever steps must be taken under the possession tax code to prevent the expiration of the statutory period for filing a claim for credit or refund of a possession tax.
See Revenue Procedure 2006-54 (or its successor), section 9, for complete information.