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Publication 544

Sales and Other  
Dispositions of  


Future Developments(p1)

For the latest information about developments related to Publication 544, such as legislation enacted after it was published, go to

What's New(p1)

Form 8949.(p1)
For tax years beginning in 2012, many transactions that, in previous years, would have been reported by corporations and partnerships on Schedule D or Schedule D-1 must be reported first on Form 8949.

Important Reminders(p1)

Dispositions of U.S. real property interests by foreign persons.(p1)
If you are a foreign person or firm and you sell or otherwise dispose of a U.S. real property interest, the buyer (or other transferee) may have to withhold income tax on the amount you receive for the property (including cash, the fair market value of other property, and any assumed liability). Corporations, partnerships, trusts, and estates also may have to withhold on certain U.S. real property interests they distribute to you. You must report these dispositions and distributions and any income tax withheld on your U.S. income tax return.
For more information on dispositions of U.S. real property interests, see Publication 519, U.S. Tax Guide for Aliens. Also see Publication 515, Withholding of Tax on Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Entities.
Foreign source income.(p2)
If you are a U.S. citizen with income from dispositions of property outside the United States (foreign income), you must report all such income on your tax return unless it is exempt from U.S. law. This is true whether you reside inside or outside the United States and whether or not you receive a Form 1099 from the foreign payor.
Photographs of missing children.(p2)
The Internal Revenue Service is a proud partner with the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children. Photographs of missing children selected by the Center may appear in this publication on pages that would otherwise be blank. You can help bring these children home by looking at the photographs and calling 1-800-THE-LOST (1-800-843-5678) if you recognize a child.


You dispose of property when any of the following occurs.
This publication explains the tax rules that apply when you dispose of property. It discusses the following topics.
This publication also explains whether your gain is taxable or your loss is deductible.
This publication does not discuss certain transactions covered in other IRS publications. These include the following.

Forms to file.(p2)

When you dispose of property, you usually will have to file one or more of the following forms.
Although the discussions in this publication may at times refer mainly to individuals, many of the rules discussed also apply to taxpayers other than individuals. However, the rules for property held for personal use usually will not apply to taxpayers other than individuals.

Comments and suggestions.(p2)

We welcome your comments about this publication and your suggestions for future editions.
You can write to us at the following address.

Internal Revenue Service
Business, Exempt Organizations and International Forms and Publications Branch
1111 Constitution Ave. NW, IR-6526
Washington, DC 20224

We respond to many letters by telephone. Therefore, it would be helpful if you would include your daytime phone number, including the area code, in your correspondence.
You can email us at Please put "Publications Comment" on the subject line.You can also send us comments from, select "Comment on Tax Forms and Publications" under "More information."
Although we cannot respond individually to each email, we do appreciate your feedback and will consider your comments as we revise our tax products.
Ordering forms and publications.(p2)
Visit to download forms and publications, call 1-800-TAX-FORM (1-800-829-3676), or write to the address below and receive a response within 10 days after your request is received.

Internal Revenue Service
1201 N. Mitsubishi Motorway
Bloomington, IL 61705-6613

Tax questions.(p2)
If you have a tax question, check the information available on or call 1-800-829-1040. We cannot answer tax questions sent to either of the above addresses.