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IRS.gov Website
Publication 946
taxmap/pubs/p946-020.htm#en_us_publink1000107513

Which Property Class Applies Under GDS?(p28)

rule

Words you may need to know (see Glossary)

The following is a list of the nine property classifications under GDS and examples of the types of property included in each class. These property classes also are listed under column (a) in section B, Part III, of Form 4562. For detailed information on property classes, see Appendix B, Table of Class Lives and Recovery Periods, in this publication.
  1. 3-year property.
    1. Tractor units for over-the-road use.
    2. Any race horse over 2 years old when placed in service.
    3. Any other horse (other than a race horse) over 12 years old when placed in service.
    4. Qualified rent-to-own property (defined later).
  2. 5-year property.
    1. Automobiles, taxis, buses, and trucks.
    2. Any qualified technological equipment.
    3. Office machinery (such as typewriters, calculators, and copiers).
    4. Any property used in research and experimentation.
    5. Breeding cattle and dairy cattle.
    6. Appliances, carpets, furniture, etc., used in a residential rental real estate activity.
    7. Certain geothermal, solar, and wind energy property.
    8. Any machinery equipment (other than any grain bin, cotton ginning asset, fence, or other land improvement) used in a farming business and placed in service after 2017, in tax years ending after 2017. The original use of the property must begin with you after 2017.
  3. 7-year property.
    1. Office furniture and fixtures (such as desks, files, and safes).
    2. Used agricultural machinery and equipment placed in service after 2017, grain bins, cotton ginning assets, or fences used in a farming business (but no other land improvements).
    3. Railroad track.
    4. Any property that does not have a class life and has not been designated by law as being in any other class.
    5. Any natural gas gathering line placed in service after April 11, 2005. See Natural gas gathering line and electric transmission property, later.
  4. 10-year property.
    1. Vessels, barges, tugs, and similar water transportation equipment.
    2. Any single-purpose agricultural or horticultural structure.
    3. Any tree or vine bearing fruits or nuts.
    4. Qualified small electric meter and qualified smart electric grid system (defined later) placed in service on or after October 3, 2008.
  5. 15-year property.
    1. Certain improvements made directly to land or added to it (such as shrubbery, fences, roads, sidewalks, and bridges).
    2. Any retail motor fuels outlet (defined later), such as a convenience store.
    3. Any municipal wastewater treatment plant.
    4. Initial clearing and grading land improvements for gas utility property.
    5. Electric transmission property (that is section 1245 property) used in the transmission at 69 or more kilovolts of electricity placed in service after April 11, 2005. See Natural gas gathering line and electric transmission property, later.
    6. Any natural gas distribution line placed in service after April 11, 2005, and before January 1, 2011.
    7. Any telephone distribution plant and comparable equipment used for 2-way exchange of voice and data communications.
  6. 20-year property.
    1. Farm buildings (other than single-purpose agricultural or horticultural structures).
    2. Municipal sewers not classified as 25-year property.
    3. Initial clearing and grading land improvements for electric utility transmission and distribution plants.
  7. 25-year property. This class is water utility property, which is either of the following.
    1. Property that is an integral part of the gathering, treatment, or commercial distribution of water, and that, without regard to this provision, would be 20-year property.
    2. Municipal sewers other than property placed in service under a binding contract in effect at all times since June 9, 1996.
  8. Residential rental property. This is any building or structure, such as a rental home (including a mobile home), if 80% or more of its gross rental income for the tax year is from dwelling units. A dwelling unit is a house or apartment used to provide living accommodations in a building or structure. It does not include a unit in a hotel, motel, or other establishment where more than half the units are used on a transient basis. If you occupy any part of the building or structure for personal use, its gross rental income includes the fair rental value of the part you occupy.
  9. Nonresidential real property. This is section 1250 property, such as an office building, store, or warehouse, that is neither residential rental property nor property with a class life of less than 27.5 years.
taxmap/pubs/p946-020.htm#en_us_publink1000107514

Qualified rent-to-own property.(p29)

rule
Qualified rent-to-own property is property held by a rent-to-own dealer for purposes of being subject to a rent-to-own contract. It is tangible personal property generally used in the home for personal use. It includes computers and peripheral equipment, televisions, videocassette recorders, stereos, camcorders, appliances, furniture, washing machines and dryers, refrigerators, and other similar consumer durable property. Consumer durable property does not include real property, aircraft, boats, motor vehicles, or trailers.
If some of the property you rent to others under a rent-to-own agreement is of a type that may be used by the renters for either personal or business purposes, you still can treat this property as qualified property as long as it does not represent a significant portion of your leasing property. However, if this dual-use property does represent a significant portion of your leasing property, you must prove that this property is qualified rent-to-own property.
taxmap/pubs/p946-020.htm#en_us_publink1000107515
Rent-to-own dealer.(p29)
You are a rent-to-own dealer if you meet all the following requirements.
taxmap/pubs/p946-020.htm#en_us_publink1000107516
Rent-to-own contract.(p29)
This is any lease for the use of consumer property between a rent-to-own dealer and a customer who is an individual which:
taxmap/pubs/p946-020.htm#en_us_publink1000243554

Qualified smart electric grid system.(p29)

rule
A qualified smart electric grid system means any smart grid property used as part of a system for electric distribution grid communications, monitoring, and management placed in service after October 3, 2008, by a taxpayer who is a supplier of electrical energy or a provider of electrical energy services. Smart grid property includes electronics and related equipment that is capable of:
taxmap/pubs/p946-020.htm#en_us_publink1000107518

Retail motor fuels outlet.(p30)

rule
Real property is a retail motor fuels outlet if it is used to a substantial extent in the retail marketing of petroleum or petroleum products (whether or not it also is used to sell food or other convenience items) and meets any one of the following three tests. A retail motor fuels outlet does not include any facility related to petroleum and natural gas trunk pipelines.
taxmap/pubs/p946-020.htm#en_us_publink1000107519

Qualified improvement property.(p30)

rule
Generally, this is any improvement to an interior part of a building that is nonresidential real property, and the improvement is section 1250 property and is placed in service by you after 2017 and after the date the building was first placed in service by any person.
However, a qualified improvement does not include any improvement for which the expenditure is attributable to any of the following.
taxmap/pubs/p946-020.htm#en_us_publink1000138046

Qualified smart electric meter.(p30)

rule
A qualified smart electric meter is any time-based meter and related communication equipment which is placed in service by a supplier of electric energy or a provider of electric energy services and which is capable of being used by you as part of a system that:
taxmap/pubs/p946-020.htm#en_us_publink1000107521

Natural gas gathering line and electric transmission property.(p30)

rule
Any natural gas gathering line placed in service after April 11, 2005, is treated as 7-year property, and electric transmission property (that is section 1245 property) used in the transmission at 69 or more kilovolts of electricity and any natural gas distribution line placed in service after April 11, 2005, are treated as 15-year property, if the following requirements are met.