skip navigation
Search Help
Navigation Help

Tax Map Index

Tax Topic Index

Affordable Care Act
Tax Topic Index

Exempt Organization
Tax Topic Index

Tax Topics

About Tax Map Website
Publication 505

and Estimated  



The federal income tax is a pay-as-you-go tax. You must pay the tax as you earn or receive income during the year. There are two ways to pay as you go. This publication explains both of these methods. It also explains how to take credit on your return for the tax that was withheld and for your estimated tax payments.
If you did not pay enough tax during the year, either through withholding or by making estimated tax payments, you may have to pay a penalty. Generally, the IRS can figure this penalty for you. This underpayment penalty, and the exceptions to it, are discussed in chapter 4.
Nonresident aliens.(p2)
Before completing Form W-4, Employee's Withholding Allowance Certificate, nonresident alien employees should see the Instructions for Form 8233, Exemption From Withholding on Compensation for Independent (and Certain Dependent) Personal Services of a Nonresident Alien Individual. Also see chapter 8 of Pub. 519, U.S. Tax Guide for Aliens, for important information on withholding.

Comments and suggestions.(p2)

We welcome your comments about this publication and your suggestions for future editions.
You can send us comments from Click on "More Information" and then on "Give us feedback."
Or you can write to:

Internal Revenue Service
Tax Forms and Publications
1111 Constitution Ave. NW, IR-6526
Washington, DC 20224

We respond to many letters by telephone. Therefore, it would be helpful if you would include your daytime phone number, including the area code, in your correspondence.
Although we cannot respond individually to each comment received, we do appreciate your feedback and will consider your comments as we revise our tax products.
Ordering forms and publications.(p2)
Visit to download forms and publications. Otherwise, you can go to to order current and prior-year forms and instructions. Your order should arrive within 10 business days.
Tax questions.(p2)
If you have a tax question not answered by this publication, check and How To Get Tax Help at the end of this publication.

What's New for 2017(p2)

Use your 2016 tax return as a guide in figuring your 2017 estimated tax, but be sure to consider the following.
Standard mileage rates.(p2)
The 2017 rate for business use of your vehicle is 53.5 cents per mile. The rate for use of your vehicle to get medical care or move is 17 cents per mile. The rate of 14 cents per mile for charitable use is unchanged.
Personal exemption for certain taxpayers.(p2)
For 2017, the personal exemption amount remains unchanged at $4,050 for taxpayers with adjusted gross income at or below $313,800 if married filing jointly or qualifying widow(er), $287,650 if head of household, $261,500 if single, or $156,900 if married filing separately. The personal exemption amount for taxpayers with adjusted gross income above these thresholds may be reduced.
Limitation on itemized deductions.(p2)
For 2017, itemized deductions for taxpayers with adjusted gross income above $313,800 if married filing jointly or qualifying widow(er), $287,650 if head of household, $261,500 if single, and $156,900 if married filing separately may be reduced.
Alternative minimum tax (AMT) exemption amount increased.(p2)
The AMT exemption amount is increased to $54,300 ($84,500 if married filing jointly or qualifying widow(er); $42,250 if married filing separately).
Lifetime learning credit income limits.(p2)
In order to claim a lifetime learning credit, your MAGI must be less than $56,000 ($112,000 if married filing jointly).
Retirement savings contribution credit income limits increased.(p2)
In order to claim this credit for 2017, your MAGI must be less than $31,000 ($62,000 if married filing jointly; $46,500 if head of household).
Adoption credit or exclusion.(p2)
The maximum adoption credit or exclusion for employer-provided adoption benefits has increased to $13,570. In order to claim either the credit or exclusion, your MAGI must be less than $243,540.
Earned income credit (EIC).(p2)
You may be able to take the EIC in 2017 if:
  • Three or more children lived with you and you earned less than $48,340 ($53,930 if married filing jointly),
  • Two children lived with you and you earned less than $45,007 ($50,597 if married filing jointly),
  • One child lived with you and you earned less than $39,617 ($45,207 if married filing jointly), or
  • A child did not live with you and you earned less than $15,010 ($20,600 if married filing jointly).
Also, the maximum MAGI you can have and still get the credit has increased. You may be able to take the credit if your MAGI is less than the amount in the above list that applies to you. The maximum investment income you can have and get the credit is $3,450 for 2017.
Individual taxpayer identification number (ITIN) renewal.(p2)
If you were assigned an ITIN before January 1, 2013, or if you have an ITIN that you haven’t included on a tax return in the last three consecutive years, you may need to renew it. For more information, see the instructions for Form W-7.
Cash payment option.(p2)
There is a new option for taxpayers who want to pay their taxes in cash. For details, see Cash under How To Pay Estimated Taxes.


Future developments.(p2)
The IRS has created a page on for information about Pub. 505 at Information about any future developments affecting Pub. 505 (such as legislation enacted after we release it) will be posted on that page.
Social security tax.(p2)
Generally, each employer for whom you work during the tax year must withhold social security tax up to the annual limit. The annual limit is $127,200 in 2017.
Health care coverage.(p2)
When you file your 2017 tax return in 2018, you will need to either (1) indicate on your return that you and your family had health care coverage throughout 2017, (2) claim an exemption from the health care coverage requirement for some or all of 2017, or (3) make a payment if you do not have coverage or an exemption(s) for all 12 months of 2017. See Form 8965 and its instructions for more information on claiming an exemption or making a payment.
Advance payments of the premium tax credit.(p2)
If you buy health insurance through the Health Insurance Marketplace, you may be eligible to have advance payments of the premium tax credit paid on your behalf to the insurance company. Receiving too little or too much in advance will affect your refund or balance due. Promptly report changes in your income or family size to your Marketplace. See Form 8962 and its instructions for more information.
Additional Medicare Tax.(p2)
A 0.9% Additional Medicare Tax applies to Medicare wages, Railroad Retirement Tax Act compensation, and self-employment income over a threshold amount based on your filing status. You may need to include this amount when figuring your estimated tax. You may also request that your employer deduct and withhold an additional amount of income tax withholding from your wages on Form W-4, Employee's Withholding Allowance Certificate.
Net Investment Income Tax.(p2)
You may be subject to Net Investment Income Tax (NIIT). NIIT is a 3.8% tax on the lesser of net investment income or the excess of your modified adjusted gross income (MAGI) over the threshold amount. NIIT may need to be included when figuring estimated tax. You may also request that your employer deduct and withhold an additional amount of income tax withholding from your wages on Form W-4.
Photographs of missing children.(p2)
The Internal Revenue Service is a proud partner with the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children® (NCMEC). Photographs of missing children selected by the Center may appear in this publication on pages that would otherwise be blank. You can help bring these children home by looking at the photographs and calling 1-800-THE-LOST (1-800-843-5678) if you recognize a child.