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IRS.gov Website
Publication 17
taxmap/pub17/p17-189.htm#TXMP19730aca
Section D—Use if your filing status is Head of household. Complete the row below that applies to you.
Taxable income.
If line 10 is—
(a)
Enter the amount from line 10
(b)
Multiplication amount
(c)
Multiply
(a) by (b)
(d)
Subtraction amount
Tax.
Subtract (d) from (c). Enter the result here and on Form 1040, line 11a
At least $100,000 but not over $157,500 $ × 24% (0.24) $ $  7,102.00 $
Over $157,500 but not over $200,000 $ × 32% (0.32) $ $ 19,702.00 $
Over $200,000 but not over $500,000 $ × 35% (0.35) $ $ 25,702.00 $
Over $500,000 $× 37% (0.37) $ $ 35,702.00 $
taxmap/pub17/p17-189.htm#en_us_publink1000175011

2018 Tax Rate Schedules

caution The Tax Rate Schedules are shown so you can see the tax rate that applies to all levels of taxable income. Don’t use them to figure your tax. Instead, see chapter 29.
taxmap/pub17/p17-189.htm#en_us_publink1000175012
taxmap/pub17/p17-189.htm#en_us_publink1000175017

Your Rights as a Taxpayer(p257)

rule
This section explains your rights as a taxpayer and the processes for examination, appeal, collection, and refunds.
taxmap/pub17/p17-189.htm#en_us_publink100051691

The Taxpayer Bill of Rights(p257)

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taxmap/pub17/p17-189.htm#en_us_publink100010642

1. The Right to Be Informed.(p257)

rule
Taxpayers have the right to know what they need to do to comply with the tax laws. They are entitled to clear explanations of the laws and IRS procedures in all tax forms, instructions, publications, notices, and correspondence. They have the right to be informed of IRS decisions about their tax accounts and to receive clear explanations of the outcomes.
taxmap/pub17/p17-189.htm#en_us_publink100010643

2. The Right to Quality Service.(p257)

rule
Taxpayers have the right to receive prompt, courteous, and professional assistance in their dealings with the IRS, to be spoken to in a way they can easily understand, to receive clear and easily understandable communications from the IRS, and to speak to a supervisor about inadequate service.
taxmap/pub17/p17-189.htm#en_us_publink100010644

3. The Right to Pay No More than the Correct Amount of Tax.(p257)

rule
Taxpayers have the right to pay only the amount of tax legally due, including interest and penalties, and to have the IRS apply all tax payments properly.
taxmap/pub17/p17-189.htm#en_us_publink100010645

4. The Right to Challenge the IRS’s Position and Be Heard.(p257)

rule
Taxpayers have the right to raise objections and provide additional documentation in response to formal IRS actions or proposed actions, to expect that the IRS will consider their timely objections and documentation promptly and fairly, and to receive a response if the IRS does not agree with their position.
taxmap/pub17/p17-189.htm#en_us_publink100010646

5. The Right to Appeal an IRS Decision in an Independent Forum.(p257)

rule
Taxpayers are entitled to a fair and impartial administrative appeal of most IRS decisions, including many penalties, and have the right to receive a written response regarding the Office of Appeals' decision. Taxpayers generally have the right to take their cases to court.
taxmap/pub17/p17-189.htm#en_us_publink100010647

6. The Right to Finality.(p257)

rule
Taxpayers have the right to know the maximum amount of time they have to challenge the IRS’s position as well as the maximum amount of time the IRS has to audit a particular tax year or collect a tax debt. Taxpayers have the right to know when the IRS has finished an audit.
taxmap/pub17/p17-189.htm#en_us_publink100010648

7. The Right to Privacy.(p257)

rule
Taxpayers have the right to expect that any IRS inquiry, examination, or enforcement action will comply with the law and be no more intrusive than necessary, and will respect all due process rights, including search and seizure protections and will provide, where applicable, a collection due process hearing.
taxmap/pub17/p17-189.htm#en_us_publink100010649

8. The Right to Confidentiality.(p257)

rule
Taxpayers have the right to expect that any information they provide to the IRS will not be disclosed unless authorized by the taxpayer or by law. Taxpayers have the right to expect appropriate action will be taken against employees, return preparers, and others who wrongfully use or disclose taxpayer return information.
taxmap/pub17/p17-189.htm#en_us_publink100010650

9. The Right to Retain Representation.(p257)

rule
Taxpayers have the right to retain an authorized representative of their choice to represent them in their dealings with the IRS. Taxpayers have the right to seek assistance from a Low Income Taxpayer Clinic if they cannot afford representation.
taxmap/pub17/p17-189.htm#en_us_publink100010651

10. The Right to a Fair and Just Tax System.(p257)

rule
Taxpayers have the right to expect the tax system to consider facts and circumstances that might affect their underlying liabilities, ability to pay, or ability to provide information timely. Taxpayers have the right to receive assistance from the Taxpayer Advocate Service if they are experiencing financial difficulty or if the IRS has not resolved their tax issues properly and timely through its normal channels.
taxmap/pub17/p17-189.htm#en_us_publink100051692

Examinations (Audits)(p257)

rule
We accept most taxpayers’ returns as filed. If we inquire about your return or select it for examination, it does not suggest that you are dishonest. The inquiry or examination may or may not result in more tax. We may close your case without change; or, you may receive a refund.
The process of selecting a return for examination usually begins in one of two ways. First, we use computer programs to identify returns that may have incorrect amounts. These programs may be based on information returns, such as Forms 1099 and W-2, on studies of past examinations, or on certain issues identified by compliance projects. Second, we use information from outside sources that indicates that a return may have incorrect amounts. These sources may include newspapers, public records, and individuals. If we determine that the information is accurate and reliable, we may use it to select a return for examination.
Publication 556, Examination of Returns, Appeal Rights, and Claims for Refund, explains the rules and procedures that we follow in examinations. The following sections give an overview of how we conduct examinations.
taxmap/pub17/p17-189.htm#en_us_publink100010633

By mail.(p257)

rule
We handle many examinations and inquiries by mail. We will send you a letter with either a request for more information or a reason why we believe a change to your return may be needed. You can respond by mail or you can request a personal interview with an examiner. If you mail us the requested information or provide an explanation, we may or may not agree with you, and we will explain the reasons for any changes. Please do not hesitate to write to us about anything you do not understand.
taxmap/pub17/p17-189.htm#en_us_publink100010634

By interview.(p257)

rule
If we notify you that we will conduct your examination through a personal interview, or you request such an interview, you have the right to ask that the examination take place at a reasonable time and place that is convenient for both you and the IRS. If our examiner proposes any changes to your return, he or she will explain the reasons for the changes. If you do not agree with these changes, you can meet with the examiner's supervisor.
taxmap/pub17/p17-189.htm#en_us_publink100010635

Repeat examinations.(p257)

rule
If we examined your return for the same items in either of the 2 previous years and proposed no change to your tax liability, please contact us as soon as possible so we can see if we should discontinue the examination.
taxmap/pub17/p17-189.htm#en_us_publink100051693

Appeals(p257)

rule
If you do not agree with the examiner's proposed changes, you can appeal them to the Appeals Office of the IRS. Most differences can be settled without expensive and time-consuming court trials. Your appeal rights are explained in detail in both Publication 5, Your Appeal Rights and How To Prepare a Protest If You Don't Agree, and Publication 556, Examination of Returns, Appeal Rights, and Claims for Refund.
If you do not wish to use the Appeals Office or disagree with its findings, you may be able to take your case to the U.S. Tax Court, U.S. Court of Federal Claims, or the U.S. District Court where you live. If you take your case to court, the IRS will have the burden of proving certain facts if you kept adequate records to show your tax liability, cooperated with the IRS, and meet certain other conditions. If the court agrees with you on most issues in your case and finds that our position was largely unjustified, you may be able to recover some of your administrative and litigation costs. You will not be eligible to recover these costs unless you tried to resolve your case administratively, including going through the appeals system, and you gave us the information necessary to resolve the case.
taxmap/pub17/p17-189.htm#en_us_publink100051694

Collections(p257)

rule
Publication 594, The IRS Collection Process, explains your rights and responsibilities regarding payment of federal taxes. It describes:
Your collection appeal rights are explained in detail in Publication 1660, Collection Appeal Rights.
taxmap/pub17/p17-189.htm#en_us_publink100010638

Innocent spouse relief.(p257)

rule
Generally, both you and your spouse are each responsible for paying the full amount of tax, interest, and penalties due on your joint return. However, if you qualify for innocent spouse relief, you may be relieved of part or all of the joint liability. To request relief, you must file Form 8857, Request for Innocent Spouse Relief. For more information on innocent spouse relief, see Publication 971, Innocent Spouse Relief, and Form 8857.
taxmap/pub17/p17-189.htm#en_us_publink100011690

Potential third party contacts.(p258)

rule
Generally, the IRS will deal directly with you or your duly authorized representative. However, we sometimes talk with other persons if we need information that you have been unable to provide, or to verify information we have received. If we do contact other persons, such as a neighbor, bank, employer, or employees, we will generally need to tell them limited information, such as your name. The law prohibits us from disclosing any more information than is necessary to obtain or verify the information we are seeking. Our need to contact other persons may continue as long as there is activity in your case. If we do contact other persons, you have a right to request a list of those contacted. Your request can be made by telephone, in writing, or during a personal interview.
taxmap/pub17/p17-189.htm#en_us_publink100051695

Refunds(p258)

rule
You may file a claim for refund if you think you paid too much tax. You must generally file the claim within 3 years from the date you filed your original return or 2 years from the date you paid the tax, whichever is later. The law generally provides for interest on your refund if it is not paid within 45 days of the date you filed your return or claim for refund. Publication 556, Examination of Returns, Appeal Rights, and Claims for Refund, has more information on refunds.
If you were due a refund but you did not file a return, you generally must file your return within 3 years from the date the return was due (including extensions) to get that refund.
taxmap/pub17/p17-189.htm#en_us_publink100051696

Taxpayer Advocate Service(p258)

rule
TAS is an independent organization within the IRS that can help protect your taxpayer rights. We can offer you help if your tax problem is causing a hardship, or you've tried but haven't been able to resolve your problem with the IRS. If you qualify for our assistance, which is always free, we will do everything possible to help you. Visit TaxpayerAdvocate.irs.gov or call 1-877-777-4778.
taxmap/pub17/p17-189.htm#en_us_publink100051697

Tax Information(p258)

rule
The IRS provides the following sources for forms, publications, and additional information.