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Instructions for Form 2290

Who Must File(p2)

You must file Form 2290 and Schedule 1 for the tax period beginning on July 1, 2017, and ending on June 30, 2018, if a taxable highway motor vehicle (defined below) is registered, or required to be registered, in your name under state, District of Columbia, Canadian, or Mexican law at the time of its first use during the period and the vehicle has a taxable gross weight of 55,000 pounds or more. See the examples under When To File, later.
You may be an individual, limited liability company (LLC), corporation, partnership, or any other type of organization (including nonprofit, charitable, educational, etc.).
Disregarded entities and qualified subchapter S subsidiaries.(p2)
Qualified subchapter S subsidiaries (QSubs) and eligible single-owner disregarded entities are treated as separate entities for most excise tax and reporting purposes. QSubs and eligible single-owner disregarded entities must pay and report excise taxes, register for excise tax activities, and claim any refunds, credits, and payments under the entity’s employer identification number (EIN). These actions can’t take place under the owner’s taxpayer identification number (TIN). Some QSubs and disregarded entities may already have an EIN. However, if you are unsure, please call the IRS Business and Specialty Tax line at 1-800-829-4933. For more information on applying for an EIN, see Employer Identification Number (EIN), later.
Generally, QSubs and eligible single-owner disregarded entities will continue to be treated as disregarded entities for other federal tax purposes (other than employment taxes). For more information, see Regulations section 301.7701-2(c)(2)(v).
Dual registration.(p2)
If a taxable vehicle is registered in the name of both the owner and another person, the owner is liable for the tax. This rule also applies to dual registration of a leased vehicle.
Any vehicle operated under a dealer’s tag, license, or permit is considered registered in the name of the dealer.
Used vehicle. (p2)
See Used vehicles and Tax computation for privately purchased used vehicles and required claim information for sold used vehicles, later.
Logging vehicles.(p2)
A vehicle qualifies as a logging vehicle if:
  1. It is used exclusively for the transportation of products harvested from the forested site, or it exclusively transports the products harvested from the forested site to and from locations on a forested site (public highways may be used between the forested site locations); and
  2. It is registered (under the laws of the state or states in which the vehicle is required to be registered) as a highway motor vehicle used exclusively in the transportation of harvested forest products. A vehicle will be considered to be registered under the laws of a state as a highway motor vehicle used exclusively in the transportation of harvested forest products if the vehicle is so registered under a state statute or legally valid regulations. In addition, no special tag or license plate identifying a vehicle as being used in the transportation of harvested forest products is required.
Products harvested from the forested site may include timber that has been processed for commercial use by sawing into lumber, chipping, or other milling operations if the processing occurs before transportation from the forested site.
Logging vehicles are taxed at reduced rates. See Table II, later.

Taxable Vehicles(p2)

Highway motor vehicles that have a taxable gross weight of 55,000 pounds or more are taxable.
A highway motor vehicle includes any self-propelled vehicle designed to carry a load over public highways, whether or not also designed to perform other functions. Examples of vehicles that are designed to carry a load over public highways include trucks, truck tractors, and buses. Generally, vans, pickup trucks, panel trucks, and similar trucks aren’t subject to this tax because they have a taxable gross weight less than 55,000 pounds.
A vehicle consists of a chassis, or a chassis and body, but doesn’t include the load. It doesn’t matter if the vehicle is designed to perform a highway transportation function for only a particular type of load, such as passengers, furnishings, and personal effects (as in a house, office, or utility trailer), or a special kind of cargo, goods, supplies, or materials. It doesn’t matter if machinery or equipment is specially designed (and permanently mounted) to perform some off-highway task unrelated to highway transportation except to the extent discussed later under Vehicles not considered highway motor vehicles.
Use means the use of a vehicle with power from its own motor on any public highway in the United States.
A public highway is any road in the United States that isn’t a private roadway. This includes federal, state, county, and city roads.


You purchased your heavy truck from the dealer and drove it over the public highways to your home. The drive home was your first taxable use of the vehicle.
The use of certain highway motor vehicles is exempt from the tax (and thus not required to be reported on a Form 2290) if certain requirements are met. The use of a highway motor vehicle isn’t subject to the tax if it is used and actually operated by:
Also exempt from tax (and thus not required to be reported on a Form 2290) is the use of:
Qualified blood collector vehicle.

A qualified blood collector vehicle is a vehicle at least 80% of the use of which during the prior tax period was by a qualified blood collector organization for the collection, storage, or transportation of blood. A vehicle first placed in service in a tax period will be treated as a qualified blood collector vehicle for the tax period if the qualified blood collector organization certifies that the organization reasonably expects at least 80% of the use of the vehicle by the organization during the tax period will be in the collection, storage, or transportation of blood.
Vehicles not considered highway motor vehicles.(p3)
Generally, the following kinds of vehicles aren’t considered highway vehicles.
  1. Specially designed mobile machinery for nontransportation functions. A self-propelled vehicle isn’t a highway vehicle if all the following apply.
    1. The chassis has permanently mounted to it machinery or equipment used to perform certain operations (construction, manufacturing, drilling, mining, timbering, processing, farming, or similar operations) if the operation of the machinery or equipment is unrelated to transportation on or off the public highways.
    2. The chassis has been specially designed to serve only as a mobile carriage and mount (and power source, if applicable) for the machinery or equipment, whether or not the machinery or equipment is in operation.
    3. The chassis couldn’t, because of its special design and without substantial structural modification, be used as part of a vehicle designed to carry any other load.
  2. Vehicles specially designed for off-highway transportation. A vehicle isn’t treated as a highway vehicle if the vehicle is specially designed for the primary function of transporting a particular type of load other than over the public highway and because of this special design, the vehicle’s capability to transport a load over a public highway is substantially limited or impaired.
    To make this determination, you can take into account the vehicle’s size; whether the vehicle is subject to licensing, safety, or other requirements; and whether the vehicle can transport a load at a sustained speed of at least 25 miles per hour. It doesn’t matter that the vehicle can carry heavier loads off highway than it is allowed to carry over the highway.